Proline is a multifunctional amino acid that is accumulated in high concentrations in plants under various stress conditions. Proline accumulation is intimately connected to many cellular processes, such as osmotic pressure, energy status, nutrient availability, changes in redox balance, and defenses against pathogens. Proline biosynthesis and catabolism is linked to photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration, respectively. Proline can function as a signal, modulating gene expression and certain metabolic processes. We review important findings on proline metabolism and function of the last decade, giving a more informative picture about the function of this unusual amino acid in maintaining cellular homeostasis, modulating plant development, and promoting stress acclimation.
Keywords: SnRK1 kinase; TOR kinase; environmental stress; light; pathogen defenses; proline metabolism.
Autores: Alvarez M.E., Savouré A., Szabados L.