Addition of arginine (Arg) from tRNA can cause major alterations of structure and function of protein substrates. This post-translational modification, termed protein arginylation, is mediated by the enzyme arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase 1 (Ate1). Arginylation plays essential roles in a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal organization. Ate1 is associated with neuronal functions such as neurogenesis and neurite growth. However, the role of Ate1 in glial development, including oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination processes in the central nervous system, is poorly understood. The present study revealed a peak in Ate1 protein expression during myelination process in primary cultured OLs. Post-transcriptional downregulation of Ate1 reduced the number of OL processes, and branching complexity, in vitro. We conditionally ablated Ate1 from OLs in mice using 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase-Cre promoter (“Ate1-KO” mice), to assess the role of Ate1 in OL function and axonal myelination in vivo. Immunostaining for OL differentiation markers revealed a notable reduction of mature OLs in corpus callosum of 14-day-old Ate1-KO, but no changes in spinal cord, in comparison with wild-type controls. Local proliferation of OL precursor cells was elevated in corpus callosum of 21-day-old Ate1-KO, but was unchanged in spinal cord. Five-month-old Ate1-KO displayed reductions of mature OL number and myelin thickness, with alterations of motor behaviors. Our findings, taken together, demonstrate that Ate1 helps maintain proper OL differentiation and myelination in corpus callosum in vivo, and that protein arginylation plays an essential role in developmental myelination.
Ablation of arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase in oligodendrocytes impairs central nervous system myelination
Palandri A., Bonnet L.V., Farias M.G., Hallak M.E:, Galiano M.R.. Glia. October 2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.24107