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The N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis proline dehydrogenase affects enzymatic activity and protein oligomerization.

Smith et al. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2020

Proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline (Pro) into Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). In eukaryotes, ProDH coordinates with different Pro metabolism enzymes to control energy supply or stress responses signaling. Heterologous expression and crystallization of prokaryotic enzymes provided key data on their active center, folding capacity and oligomerization status. In contrast, eukaryotic ProDHs have not been crystallized so far, and their study as recombinant proteins remains limited. Plants contain two isoforms of ProDH with non-redundant functions. To contribute to the study of these enzymes, we describe the modeling, expression in E. coli, purification, and characterization of the Arabidopsis isoenzymes, AtProDH1 and AtProDH2. The 3D model suggested that both proteins adopt a distorted barrel structure (βα) with a cap formed by N-terminal α helices. The expression of two types of N-terminal deletion proteins indicated that this domain affected enzyme activity. Full-length enzymes had Km values similar to those of native proteins, whereas truncated proteins were inactive. Moreover, the first α helix proved to be necessary for AtProDH1 and AtProDH2 activities. Interestingly, both isoenzymes were able to oligomerize and this also required the first N-terminal α helix. Thus, we report the first insights into structure-function relationship of plant ProDHs demonstrating that the N-terminus, although not directly involved in catalysis, controls enzyme arrangement and activity. The resources generated here could be useful to analyze other plant ProDH features, such as its coordination with other enzymes, and differences between ProDH1 and ProDH2, providing new information on its effects on stress tolerance.

 

Authors: Fabro G, Cislaghi AP, County F, Deza Borau G, Alvarez ME.

 

Article: The N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis proline dehydrogenase affects enzymatic activity and protein oligomerization. Fabro G, Cislaghi AP, County F, Deza Borau G, Alvarez ME. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2020 Jun 13;154:268-276. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.04.019