Szymanowski et al. BBA 2019
Eukaryotic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) interact with plasma membrane of bacteria, fungi and eukaryotic parasites. Noteworthy, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (CIDCA 133) and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CIDCA 331) show different susceptibility to human beta-defensins (β-sheet peptides). In the present work we extended the study to α-helical peptides from anuran amphibian (Aurein 1.2, Citropin 1.1 and Maculatin 1.1). We studied the effect on whole bacteria and liposomes formulated with bacterial lipids through growth kinetics, flow cytometry, leakage of liposome content and studies of peptide insertion in lipid monolayers. Growth of strain CIDCA 331 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of all three peptides and minimal inhibitory concentrations were lower than those for strain CIDCA 133. Flow cytometry revealed that AMPs lead to the permeabilization of bacteria. In addition, CIDCA 331-derived liposomes showed high susceptibility, leading to content leakage and structural disruption. Accordingly, peptide insertion in lipid monolayers demonstrated spontaneous interaction of AMPs with CIDCA 331 lipids. In contrast, lipids monolayers from strain CIDCA 133 were less susceptible. Summarizing we demonstrate that the high resistance of the probiotic strain CIDCA 133 to AMPs extends to α helix peptides Aurein, Citropin and Maculatin. This behavior could be ascribed in part to differences in membrane composition. These findings, along with the previously demonstrated resistance to β defensins from human origin, suggest that strain CIDCA 133 is well adapted to host innate immune effectors from both mammals and amphibians thus indicating conserved mechanisms of interaction with key components of the innate immune system.
Authors:Szymanowski F*, Balatti GE*, And ambroggio*, Hugo AA, Martini MF, Fidelio GD, The Gómez-Zavaglia, Pickholz M, Pérez PF.